History of Architecture Quiz
- Question: Which architect wrote I quattro libri dell'architettura (1570; The Four Books of Architecture)?
- Answer: Italian architect Andrea Palladio is regarded as the greatest architect of 16th-century northern Italy. His designs for palaces and villas, notably the Villa Rotonda (1550–51) near Vicenza, and his treatise I quattro libri dell'architettura (1570; The Four Books of Architecture) made him one of the most influential figures in Western architecture.
- Question: Who designed the Lincoln Memorial?
- Answer: The Lincoln Memorial was designed by the American architect Henry Bacon on a plan similar to that of the Parthenon in Athens. The structure includes 36 outer columns (each 44 feet [13.4 metres] high) of Colorado marble, one for each state that made up the Union in Lincoln’s time. Dominating the interior is a colossal (19-foot [5.8-metre) statue of a seated Lincoln, who seems to look eastward across a reflecting pool at the Washington Monument and Capitol. The statue, composed of Georgia white marble and resting on a pedestal of Tennessee marble, was designed by Daniel Chester French and carved by the Piccirilli brothers of New York. On the South Wall is inscribed Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address and on the North Wall his Second Inaugural Address. The cornerstone was laid in 1915, and the completed memorial was dedicated on Memorial Day, May 30, 1922.
- Question: What was the world’s tallest human-made structure from 1899 to 1929?
- Answer: The Eiffel Tower was the tallest human-made structure in the world from 1899 until 1929, when the Chrysler Building in New York City was topped with a spire. The 984-foot (300-metre) tower was built almost entirely of open-lattice wrought iron.
- Question: What famous monument, apart from the Eiffel Tower, did Gustave Eiffel have a hand in designing?
- Answer: Gustave Eiffel is renowned for the tower in Paris that bears his name. He also designed the framework of the Statue of Liberty for New York Harbor.
- Question: Which emperor of India built the Taj Mahal?
- Answer: Shah Jahan was the Mughal emperor of India (1628–58) who built the Taj Mahal. It was erected in memory of his favourite of his three queens, Mumtaz Mahal.
- Question: What is the name for the draped female figures that are used in place of columns as architectural supports?
- Answer: In Classical architecture, caryatids, or draped female figures, were sometimes used instead of columns for support. They first appeared in pairs in three small marble buildings (treasuries) at Delphi (550–530 BCE), and their origin can be traced to mirror handles of nude figures carved from ivory in Phoenicia and draped figures cast from bronze in Archaic Greece. According to a story related by the 1st-century-BCE Roman architectural writer Vitruvius, caryatids represented the women of Caryae, who were doomed to hard labour because the town sided with the Persians in 480 BCE during their second invasion of Greece.
- Question: Which English architect is known for the planning of the Indian capital city of New Delhi?
- Answer: The English architect Sir Edwin Lutyens is noted for his versatility and range of invention along traditional lines. He is known especially for his plan for New Delhi and his design of the Viceroy’s House there. His plan, with a central mall and diagonal avenues, may have owed something to Pierre Charles L’Enfant’s plan for Washington, D.C., and to Christopher Wren’s plan for London after the Great Fire, but the total result was quite different: a garden-city pattern based on a series of hexagons separated by broad avenues with double lines of trees
- Question: Which architectural monument commemorates the Great Fire of London?
- Answer: The Monument is a column in the City of London, just north of London Bridge, that commemorates the Great Fire of London (1666). It was most likely designed by the physicist and architect Robert Hooke, although some sources credit Christopher Wren. Erected in the 1670s near the site of the fire’s origin (on Pudding Lane), it stands 202 feet (61.5 metres) above the pavement.
- Question: In architecture and decoration, what is a swag?
- Answer: In architecture and decoration, a swag is a carved ornamental motif consisting of stylized flowers, fruit, foliage, and cloth tied together with ribbons that sag in the middle and are attached at both ends. The swag is a prominent decorative motif in Classical architecture and decoration. It was freely used by the ancient Greeks and Romans. It was especially popular among decorators of the Renaissance, many of whom also employed painted swags.
- Question: What is the name for the decorated tiles that sometimes cover entire walls of buildings in Portugal, Spain, and places they colonized?
- Answer: The word azulejo comes from the Arabic al-zulayj, meaning “little stone.” These Spanish, and later principally Portuguese, tiles were produced from the 14th century onward. In the 15th and 16th centuries Portugal imported azulejo tiles from Spain, and their use was widespread in religious and private architecture, particularly on facades and interior surfaces, such as inside Coimbra’s Old Cathedral (1170).
- Question: The Amalienborg, residence of the Danish royal family, exemplifies which style of architecture?
- Answer: The Amalienborg architectural complex in Copenhagen, Denmark, is considered to be one of the finest examples of Rococo-style architecture in Europe. It was built during the reign (1746–66) of King Frederick V and comprises the four buildings of the royal palace and the octagonal courtyard surrounded by them. The complex was designed and constructed by the Danish architect Nicolai Eigtved.
- Question: Who designed and built the White House in Washington, D.C.?
- Answer: James Hoban, the American architect who designed and built the White House in Washington, D.C., was trained in the Irish and English Georgian style and worked in this design tradition throughout his architectural career. He won a national competition and received the commission to build the White House as well as $500 and a lot in the District of Columbia. The cornerstone was laid in 1793, and work continued until 1801. Hoban also supervised the reconstruction of the building after it was destroyed in the War of 1812.
- Question: Which of these architectural styles began in the United States?
- Answer: The Prairie style is uniquely American. It is exemplified by the low-lying “prairie houses,” such as the Robie House (1908), that were for the most part built in the American Midwest between 1900 and 1917 by Frank Lloyd Wright. Prairie-style houses and other buildings were generally two-story structures with single-story wings. They utilized horizontal lines, ribbon windows, gently sloping roofs, suppressed heavyset chimneys, overhangs, and sequestered gardens.
- Question: What is a baldachin in architecture?
- Answer: Baldachin is a name for a column-supported canopy over an altar, a tomb, or some other venerated object, especially when the canopy is freestanding and disconnected from any enclosing wall. The term originates from the Spanish baldaquin, which refers to an elaborately brocaded material imported from Baghdad that was hung as a canopy over an altar or a doorway.
- Question: What architect and engineer invented machines expressly to aid in constructing the dome of the Florence cathedral (the Duomo)?
- Answer: Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the pioneers of early Renaissance architecture in Italy. His major work is the dome of the Florence cathedral (the Duomo; 1420–36), constructed with the aid of machines that Brunelleschi invented expressly for the project.
- Question: Which architect was an important participant in the Catalan Renaixensa?
- Answer: Antoni Gaudí was an important participant in the Catalan Renaixensa, an artistic revival of the arts and crafts combined with a political revival in the form of fervent anti-Castilian “Catalanism.” Both movements sought to reinvigorate ways of life in Catalonia that had long been suppressed by the Castilian-dominated and Madrid-centred government in Spain. The religious symbol of the Renaixensa in Barcelona was the church of the Holy Family (Sagrada Família), a project that was to occupy Gaudí throughout his career.
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© Bogdan Lazar/Dreamstime.com
© Bogdan Lazar/Dreamstime.com